The traditional scientific wisdom was that female sexual differentiation, including brain differentiation, would occur if these male hormones (e.g., testosterone) were absent. Indeed, females were once seen as thedefault sex, with typical female development occurring as long as male hormones were absent. Recent evidence suggests that sexual differentiation is more complex. Male and female sexual differentiation, including brain differentiation, is indeed related to the presence or absence of male hormones, but it is also related to other prenatal mechanisms (Arnold, 2004; Kopsida, Stergiakouli, Lynn, Wilkinson,& Davies, 2009). For example, there are specific genes on the Y and X chromosomes that affect male or female brain development directly (without, for instance, affecting male hormone levels). Thus, without these additional gene-based mechanisms, male and female sexual development, including brain differentiation, would not occur in a typical fashion. If so, male (XY) or female (XX) fetuses having one or more of these genes inactivated may have altered differentiation of the body (e.g., intersex). Similarly, if it is a gene very specific to the brain, any variation or mutation of this gene may alter neural development, leading to atypical gender identity (such as being transgendered) and atypical sexual attractions, including being gay, lesbian, or asexual. Retin-A 20blunted vowels and head-spinning pace: To experience the uniqueness of Cajun-inflected English, search YouTube for Cajun English. One example: she might have been angry with me because of her expression. I said to my mother that I had really seen him clearly, and she said that I had seen him because I wanted to. I hadnt been

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